Web Exhibits
Saratoga Horticultural Research Foundation

Changing California's Landscape 1951-2006

Previously on display in the Special Collections Display Cases during Spring and Summer Quarters 2008. Now, presented here as a web exhibit.

Exhibit prepared by Liz Phillips, Manuscript and Photograph Archivist

In 2006, the Saratoga Horticultural Research Foundation donated its archives to Special Collections along with funds to process the collection. Processing of the collection is now complete and the collection is fully available to researchers. This exhibit showcases the Saratoga Horticultural Research Foundation Collection and chronicles the Foundation's role in creating ornamental landscapes perfectly suited to California's challenging climates.

Early Years

Ray Hartman, founder of the Saratoga Horticultural Research Foundation

 
 

The Saratoga Horticultural Research Foundation (SHRF) was founded in 1952 by a group of horticulturalists and nurserymen committed to improving western horticulture. Named after the location of its original headquarters on Verde Vista Lane in Saratoga, California, the SHRF grew out of nurseryman Ray Hartman's vision of a horticultural experiment station for developing hardy, reliable trees and shrubs for the California landscape. Hartman engaged his longtime friend Maunsell Van Rensselaer, a horticulturalist, and a handful of others interested in examining the possibility of establishing an experiment station as a foundation.

Meetings to establish the Foundation began in 1951

First Foundation building under construction, 1951

First Foundation building under construction, 1951

 
 

The Saratoga Horticultural Research Foundation was ultimately established as a non-profit organization under the direction of a Board of Trustees, which was advised by a Board of Councilors drawn from prominent figures in the fields of western horticulture, arboriculture, landscape design, and botany. The Foundation's activities were advised by a director who reported to the Board of Trustees. During their fifty-four years, the Foundation introduced several new cultivars of magnolia, California lilac, and manzanita, and strongly promoted the use of drought-tolerant landscaping.

 
 

Research

Horticultural Record, 1960

 
 

The SHRF was instrumental in developing the ornamental landscaping familiar to Californians today. The Foundation conducted research into plant quality and propagation methods, evaluated trees and woody plants for street and shade planting, established test sites for investigations into climate and cultural techniques, and ultimately patented varieties of magnolia, Chinese pistache, and olive trees. The Foundation also investigated plants from Australia, New Zealand, and Chile as potential low-water-use and fire-retardant introductions to California gardens.

Photographing specimens

Magnolia grandiflora "Samuel Sommer"

Year-old Ginkgo biloba seedlings in nursery

 

Patent for Magnolia grandiflora "Samuel Sommer"

Patent for Pistachia chinensis "Keith Davey"

Dwight Long, Horticultural Consultant

 
 

Ornamental and Shade Trees

Parent tree of Ginkgo biloba "Autumn Gold"

 
 

Among the well-known plants and trees the Foundation promoted for home and commercial landscaping are: Liquidambar "Palo Alto" and Ginkgo biloba "Autumn Gold," which provide brilliant red and yellow fall foliage; several varieties of Ceanothus, or California lilac, known for its spikes of purple and blue flowers; and the many varieties of Manzanita commonly used in hedges and ground covers.

Leaves and fruit of Ginkgo biloba "Autumn Gold"

Liquidambar styraciflua "Palo Alto"

Parent tree of Pistachia chinensis "Keith Davey"

 

Ceanothus "Frosty Blue"

Arctostaphylos manzanita "Dr. Hurd"

Arctostaphylos manzanita "Dr. Hurd"

 
 

One of the SHRF's major activities was the selection and promotion of street trees. The Foundation sought out hardy, attractive trees that would blend with the landscape and thrive with little maintenance.

 
 

Drought-tolerant Landscaping

Selected California Native Plants in Color, Saratoga Horticultural Research Foundation, 1980

 
 

During the mid-1970s, a period of drought struck the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. In response to the increased need for water and energy conservation, the Foundation expanded its mission to include the promotion of drought-tolerant landscaping. It encouraged the use of California native plants and trees, shade trees to maximize cooling, and alternative plantings for heavily-watered areas.

 
 

"Today there is a growing change in attitude and a common understanding that we cannot continue using water resources as if they were unlimited. … With this in mind, Californians have begun to look beyond their garden walls to the hillside, valley, and seashore to discover where plants grow naturally — taking into account soil, rainfall, and exposure."

A California-Style of Gardening, Dennis White.

From Selected California Native Plants in Color, Barrie D. Coate and Dennis White. Saratoga Horticultural Foundation, 1980.

 
 

The Foundation actively evaluated and promoted native and other low-water-use plants and trees.

Outreach and Education

Associates of SHF newsletters: 1976, 1986, 1989, 1991

 
 
 

At the height of its membership, the Saratoga Horticultural Research Foundation had approximately 400 members engaged in research, educational outreach, and promotion of selected cultivars. The Foundation provided the findings of its research to members of the nursery trade, landscape architects, students, teachers, and other researchers.

 
 

The Foundation was known for its spring plant sales and Fall Festival, during which the public could tour the Foundation's nursery and purchase native and unusual plants. Most of the outreach activities were coordinated and carried out by the Associates of Saratoga Horticultural Foundation, the SHRF's docent and fund-raising group.

Group Tour Outline from an early Associates docent training program, 1976

 
 

Saratoga Horticultural Research Foundation's Legacy

 
 

"New Endowment Established at UC Davis to Support Horticultural Research and Education", College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (http://caes.ucdavis.edu/NewsEvents/web-news/december-2006)

When the Foundation elected to disband in 2006, it had met its mission of raising interest in California native plants and creating an ornamental landscape perfectly suited to California's Mediterranean climate zones. The Foundation's fifty-four years of activity were essential in guiding nurseries to continue the Foundation's work to select, evaluate, and introduce climate-appropriate plants to the California landscaping and gardening public.

Carol and Barrie Coate's notes for speeches given at UC Davis, December 2006

Treescapes at UC Davis, prepared by Amy Davis and the UC Davis Grounds Division, 1995.

 
 

This guide draws on the Foundation's legacy of researching and promoting strong, well-chosen street and shade trees.

Catalogs from collection O-009, Nursery Catalogs, United States

Catalogs from collection O-009, Nursery Catalogs, United States

 
 

Some nurseries specialize in California-appropriate plants and trees.

 
 

The Department of Special Collections is very grateful to the Saratoga Horticultural Research Foundation for their generous donation in support of the processing and promotion of this collection.

Images (unless otherwise credited) are the property of the Regents of the University of California; no part may be reproduced or used without permission of the Department of Special Collections.